The International Alliance of Museums of the Silk Road (IAMS) was founded on May 18, 2017. It is a non-governmental, non-profit and open international cooperation mechanism and communication platform in the field of museums for countries and regions along the Silk Road.

By November 2023, the Alliance has 172 member units, including 57 international organizations and 115 Chinese organizations. The IAMS is committed to actively exploring thematic exhibitions, information sharing, joint research, professional exchanges and personnel training in the field of cultural heritage in countries and regions along the Silk Road, promoting international cooperation among museums in countries and regions along the Silk Road, and strengthening contact and cooperation with international institutions and organizations related to these museums. It is also dedicated to improving the society's attention to and participation in cross-cultural exchanges and cooperation, thus forging a bond of friendship for all people on the Silk Road.

The IAMS Executive Council consists of the President, the Secretary General and Vice Presidents. The National Museum of China is the President unit. The eight Vice-President units are Chinese Museums Association, China National Silk Museum, Fujian Museum, Xi'an Tang West Market Museum, National Museum of Myanmar (Yangon), National Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan, National Museum of History of Azerbaijan and National Museum in Belgrade, Serbia. The Secretariat is based at the National Museum of China.